The History of Canaan: 2350 BCE – 1906

Table of Nations describes the Canaanites as being descended from an ancestor called Canaan, son of Ham, Grandson of Noah

2350 BCE: scholars of the Semitic Eblaite material from the archive of Tell Mardikh refers to Canaanites

2300 BCE: Mesopotamia-based Akkadian Empire of Sargon the Great and Naram-Sin of Akkad

2240 BCE: Naram-Sin’s reign in the Akkadian Empire

1900 BCE: Canaan is mentioned in a document found in the ruins of Mari, a former Sumerian

1797 BCE: Abram (later called Abraham) settled in a place named Haran, in Canaan

1550-1200 BCE: Egyptian ruled colony

1475 BCE: Thutmose III conquers Canaan

1400-1100 BCE: Middle Assyrian rule

1272-1258 BCE: Israelites settle in Canaan

1209 BCE: Israel first appears in the stele of the Egyptian pharaoh Merneptah, “Israel is laid waste and his seed is no more”

1178 BCE: Ramses III defeats the Peleset, referring to the Philistines (the name derives from the attested Illyrian locality Palaeste, whose inhabitants would have been called Palaestīnī), the only major tribe of the Sea Peoples known to have settled permanently in the Levant – transliterated as Palestine in English and equated to Philistia – in a listing of the Hamitic branch of Noah’s descendants

1030-930 BCE: United Kingdom of Israel (Jewish)

957 BCE: First Temple was built by King Solomon

930-720 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (Jewish) – conquered by the Assyrian Empire

930-586 BCE: Kingdom of Judah (Jewish) – became a province of the Babylonian Empire.

853 BCE: Assyrian king Shalmaneser III names “Ahab the Israelite” among his enemies at the battle of Qarqar

720-586 BCE: Assyrian Empire

626-538 BCE: Babylonian Empire

597 BCE: Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem and deposed Jehoiakim, the king of Judah; installed Zedekiah as tributary king of Judah

587 BCE: Babylonian general Nebuzaraddan was sent to destroy Jerusalem, the city was razed to the ground, Solomon’s Temple was destroyed; the Jewish population of Judea was deported to Babylon, only a small number of people were permitted to remain to tend to the land

538 BCE: building of the Second Temple is authorized by Cyrus the Great, completed 23 years later

538-330 BCE: Persian Empire, 50,000 Jews return from Babylonia to the Land of Israel

500 BCE: Herodotus wrote of a ‘district called Palaistinê” in The Histories

330-146 BCE: Macedonian Empire, remained a Jewish theocracy under Syrian-based Seleucid rulers

146-37 BCE: Hasmonean was the ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions; some modern scholars refer to this period as an independent kingdom of Israel.

37 BCE-313 CE: Roman Empire

37-4 BCE: Judean Kingdom of Herod; Herodian kingdom or Herodian Judea was a client kingdom of the Roman Empire

20 BCE: Second Temple was renovated by Herod the Great, and became known as Herod’s Temple

4 BCE-6 CE: Herodian Tetrarchy of Judea; Archelaus was now to become king of Judea, Idumea and Samaria, while Antipas would rule Galilee and Perea with the lesser title of tetrarch. Philip was to receive Gaulanitis (the Golan Heights), Batanaea (southern Syria), Trachonitis and Auranitis (Hauran)

6 BCE–135 CE: Judaea or Iudaea, a Roman province;

70: Second Temple destroyed by the Romans during the Siege of Jerusalem

106-390: Syria Palæstina, a Roman province; Arabia Petraea

313-636: Byzantine Empire

490-636: Palaestina III Salutaris; Province of the Byzantine Empire

614-628: Jewish Sassanid Commonwealth

390-636: Palæstina Prima or Palaestina I

636-629: Perisan Empire; Jund Filastin

629-636: Palæstina Secunda or Palaestina II

636-1099: Arab (Muslim) Palestine was conquered by the Islamic Empire following the Battle of Yarmouk

691: the Dome of the Rock the al-Aqsa Mosque are built on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem; at the order of Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik

878-968: Palestine was ruled from Egypt by semi-autonomous rulers for almost a century, beginning with Ahmad ibn Tulun, and ending with the Ikhshidid rulers

969-1072: Fatimids conquered the region

1073-1098: Palestine was captured by the Great Seljuq Empire

1098: recaptured by the Fatimids

1099-1187: Crusader (Christian)

1187-1193: Saladin (Muslim)

1193-1291: Crusader (Christian)

1291-1516: Mamluk, Muslim military class which had come to power in Egypt.

1516-1917: Ottoman (Muslim)

1512–1520: Selim I, annexation of Palestine in Sam, Ottoman Syria,

1520–1566: Suleiman the Magnificent; The Eyalet of Damascus (Sanjaks of Damascus, Safad, Nablus, Jerusalem, Lajjun, Gaza)

1579-1832: The Eyalet of Damascus, including Sanjaks of Damascus, Acre, Safad, Nablus, Jerusalem, Gaza

1833: Syrian provinces were ceded to Muhammed Ali of Egypt in the Convention of Kutahya

1841: Egypt returned Syria to Ottoman in the Convention of Alexandria

1841: Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem was first separated from the Eyalet of Damascus and placed directly under Istanbul

1872: Jerusalem became an independent province by Grand Vizier Mahmud Nedim Pasha, with a special administrative status

1872: “Jerusalem Eyalet”, referred to by the British consul as creation of “Palestine into a separate eyalet”

1872: Sanjak of Nablus and Sanjak of Acre were combined with the province of Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem

1872-1909: Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem included the Kazas of Jerusalem, Gaza, Jaffa, Hebron, Beersheba

1878: Population distribution in Palestine – 462,465 (Muslim & Christian Arabs 96.8%, Jews 3.2%)

1882-1914: immigration of 65,000 European Jewish people into Ottoman Palestine

1906: the Kaza of Nazareth was added to the Jerusalem Mutasarrifate, as an exclave

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