1811: Congress refused to renew the charter for the Bank of the United States & the bank is closed.

NOTE: 1812-1815 war breaks out with Britain.

January 30, 1835: Andrew Jackson was the seventh President of the United States; on January 30, 1835, what is believed to be the first attempt to kill a sitting President of the United States occurred, an unemployed housepainter from England, aimed a pistol at Jackson, which misfired. Lawrence pulled out a second pistol, which also misfired.

NOTE: As president he dismantled the Second Bank of the United States, which served as the nation’s federally authorized central bank. 20% of its capital was owned by the federal government, 4000 private investors held 80% of the Bank’s capital, including 1000 Europeans. The bulk of the stocks were held by a few hundred wealthy Americans.

April 15, 1865: Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its greatest constitutional, military, and moral crisis—the American Civil War—preserving the Union, abolishing slavery, strengthening the national government and modernizing the economy.

NOTE: He signed the National Banking Acts of 1863 and 1864; two United States federal banking acts that established a system of national banks for banks, and created the United States National Banking System; to further control the currency, the Act taxed notes issued by state and local banks, essentially pushing non-federally issued paper out of circulation.

September 19, 1881: James Abram Garfield served as the 20th President of the United States; Garfield’s presidency lasted just 200 days—from March 4, 1881, until his death on September 19, 1881, as a result of being shot by an assassin on July 2, 1881.

NOTE: President Garfield advocated a bi-metal monetary system, in which the value of the monetary unit is defined as equivalent both to a certain quantity of gold and to a certain quantity of silver; such a system establishes a fixed rate of exchange between the two metals. He arranged for the refunding of $200 million in maturing government bonds without calling a special session of Congress. The previous interest rate of 6% on the bonds was superseded by a future rate of 3.5%, which further bolstered the government’s balance sheet. This action saved the country millions of dollars in national debt.

September 14, 1901: William McKinley was the 25th President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1897, until his assassination in September 1901, six months into his second term.

NOTE: In 1900, he secured the passage of the Gold Standard Act; a bi-metal monetary system, in which the value of the monetary unit is defined as equivalent both to a certain quantity of gold and to a certain quantity of silver; such a system establishes a fixed rate of exchange between the two metals.

October 14, 1912: Theodore Roosevelt, the former President, and Progressive Party candidate, was shot by an unemployed saloonkeeper outside a Milwaukee hotel. The bullet had effectively stopped Roosevelt’s campaign; he finished second to Woodrow Wilson.

NOTE: In 1913, in exchange for paying for his Presidential campaign, President Woodrow Wilson signed the Federal Reserve Act handing over the U.S. currency to twelve regional private banks.

December 22, 1913: Congress voted on the Federal Reserve Act between the hours of 1:30 AM and 4:30 AM. A significant portion of Congress was either sleeping at the time or was already at home with their families celebrating the holidays.

April 5th 1933: Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an Executive Order ordering citizens to hand their gold and gold certificates to the private Federal Reserve Bank.

NOTE: Executive Order 6102: Section 2. All persons are hereby required to deliver on or before May 1, 1933, to a Federal Reserve Bank or a branch or agency thereof or to any member bank of the Federal Reserve System all gold coin, gold bullion and gold certificates now owned by them or coming into their ownership on or before April 28, 1933. Section 9. Whoever willfully violates any provision of this Executive Order or of these regulations or of any rule, regulation or license issued thereunder may be fined not more than $10,000, or, if a natural person, may be imprisoned for not more than ten years, or both.

November 22, 1963: John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until he his assassination. Kennedy initiated the creation of security ties with Israel, and he is credited as the founder of the US-Israeli military alliance. He ended the arms embargo that the Eisenhower and Truman administrations had enforced on Israel. Describing the protection of Israel as a moral and national commitment, he was the first to introduce the concept of a ‘special relationship’ (as he described it to Golda Meir) between the US and Israel.

NOTE: Executive Order 11110 was issued by U.S. President John F. Kennedy on June 4, 1963. This executive order delegated to the Secretary of the Treasury the President’s authority to issue silver certificates under the Thomas Amendment of the Agricultural Adjustment Act, as amended by the Gold Reserve Act.

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