Pledge of Allegiance

The Pledge of Allegiance was written in August 1892 by the socialist minister Francis Bellamy (1855-1931). It was originally published … More

Francis Julius Bellamy

Francis Julius Bellamy (1855–1931) was an American Christian socialist minister and author, best known for writing the original version of the US Pledge of Allegiance … More


In a short essay published earlier this week, Smithsonian Secretary Lonnie G. Bunch wrote that the recent killing in Minnesota of George … More

Basic Call to Consciousness

Basic Call to Consciousness, written THIRTY YEARS AGO by the Iroquois Federation of Northeast tribes, conveys a perspective that is … More

Wovoka – “The Prophet”

Wovoka (c. 1856 – September 20, 1932), also known as Jack Wilson, was the Paiute religious leader who founded a second episode of the Ghost Dance movement. … More

Ȟe Sápa – The Black Hills

The Black Hills (Ȟe Sápa; Moʼȯhta-voʼhonáaeva; awaxaawi shiibisha) are a small and isolated mountain range rising from the Great Plains of North America in western South Dakota and extending … More

Living the Dakota 38

On the day after Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation, he ordered the execution of the Dakota 38+2 at Fort Snelling … More