Mezuzah (“doorpost”)

A mezuzah (“doorpost”) is a piece of parchment called a klaf contained in a decorative case and inscribed with specific Hebrew verses from the Torah (Deuteronomy 6:4–9 and 11:13–21). These verses … More

First Crusade (1095–1099)

The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council … More

An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub

An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب‎ / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; Kurdish: سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی‎ / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), … More

Adonizedek, the king of Jerusalem

Adonizedek, Adoni-Zedek, or Adoni-zedec was, according to the Book of Joshua, king of Jerusalem at the time of the Israelite invasion of Canaan. According to Cheyne and Black, the name originally … More

Down the Rabbit Hole – Epstein

To the socialites, celebrities and politicians who were friends and acquaintances with Jeffrey Epstein or hitched rides on Epstein’s private … More

Ruach (Kabbalah)

The Kabbalah posits that the human soul has three elements, the nefesh, ru’ach, and neshamah. The nefesh is found in all humans, and enters … More

Ruh al-qudus: “the holy spirit”

In Islam, especially Sufism, rūḥ is a person’s immortal, essential self — the “spirit” or “soul”. The Quran itself does not describe rūḥ as the … More