Hamidian massacres

The Hamidian massacres also called the Armenian massacres, were massacres of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire in the mid-1890s. Estimated casualties ranged from 100,000 to 300,000, resulting … More

What Ethiopia and Tigray need for peace

On August 24, 2022, the wheels fell off an uneasy nine-month truce between the Ethiopian and Tigrayan governments, with an enormous military assault across dozens of … More

Pax Romana (“Roman Peace”)

The Pax Romana (Latin for “Roman Peace”) is a roughly 200-year-long timespan of Roman history which is identified as a period and as a golden age of increased as … More

Christian European discovery doctrine

The discovery doctrine, also called the doctrine of discovery, is a concept of public international law that was promulgated by Christian European monarchies in order to … More

Copts – indigenous to North Africa

Copts (Coptic: ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ niremənkhēmi; Arabic: الْقِبْط al-qibṭ) are a Christian ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who have primarily inhabited the area of modern Egypt and Sudan since antiquity. Most ethnic Copts are Coptic Orthodox Christians. They are … More

Kisii people

The Abagusii (also known as Kisii (Mkisii/Wakisii) in Swahili, or Gusii in Ekegusii) are a highly diverse East African ethnic group and nation indigenous to Kisii (formerly Kisii District) … More


Pashtuns (/ˈpʌʃˌtʊn/, /ˈpɑːʃˌtʊn/ or /ˈpæʃˌtuːn/; Pashto: پښتانه, Pəx̌tānə́), also called Pakhtuns or Pathans and historically known as Afghans, are an Iranian ethnic group who are native to Central Asia and South Asia. Pashtuns are the 26th-largest ethnic group in … More

The Kingdom of Tungning

The Kingdom of Tungning (Chinese: 東寧王國; pinyin: Dōngníng Wángguó; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tang-lêng Ông-kok), also known as Tywan by the British at the time, was a dynastic maritime state that ruled part of … More